Oncogenes are not able to initiate tumours in all cellular contexts, a phenomenon referred to as oncogenic competence. Such competence depends on both cell-intrinsic programs (i.e. developmental and epigenetic state) as well as cell-extrinsic influences from the TME. To study this, we have developed zebrafish and human pluripotent stem cell models of melanoma. In the talk, I will discuss how convergence of intrinsic and extrinsic programs determines the likelihood of oncogenic transformation.