Although distributive justice is at the core of the climate challenge, energy transitions research is largely focused on aggregate techno-economic outcomes. How can we re-frame climate mitigation research to incorporate well-being outcomes and preserve development opportunities for those in poverty around the world? In this talk, I will discuss an integrated framework for interdisciplinary research that bridges social sciences with energy-economic models of climate mitigation. I will also present new empirical results to show that affluence, more than poverty eradication, drives climate change, even in the Global South. Less than a tenth of US energy consumption per capita would suffice to support basic well-being for all. Yet, there is significant potential for equitable, low-carbon development pathways. This framework can also be applied to affluent societies to investigate how drastic emissions cuts can preserve, if not enhance, human well-being.