T cell communication goes viral-a role for extracellular vesicles in T cell help

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We recently discovered that T cells generate extracellular vesicles within the immunological synapse that are highly enriched in T cell antigen receptors. Recently, we developed new methods to document what other proteins are present and how they are localised within the extracellular vesicles, which we refer to as synaptic ectosomes. The newly identified proteins include the retroviral restriction factor tetherin (CD317) and the ligand for CD40 (CD154). I will present a new model for how these “virus” like particles help spread information in lymphoid tissues.